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Programmes scolaires en Algérie : Une confusion, deux courants, trois postures et… le reste

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Farid Benramdane Docteur en sciences du langagePublié dans El Watan le 28 – 01 – 2012

Farid Benramdane est spécialiste national en toponymie, membre du conseil des experts de l’Unesco sur ces questions, doyen de la faculté des Arts et des Lettres de Mostaganem et ancien membre de la CNRCE (Commission nationale de réforme du système éducatif).
Le point de vue développé dans le dossier d’El Watan du jeudi 19 janvier 2012 est beaucoup plus proche, paradoxalement, de la thèse défendue par les responsables du ministère de l’Education nationale que des critiques habituellement contenus dans les écrits d’El Watan. Il n’est nullement exagéré de dire qu’on a eu en la personne de M. Bourouina le représentant, intellectuellement parlant, de cette tendance. Cependant, si tout cela est à son honneur, et bien que nous ne soyons pas d’accord avec notre ancien inspecteur général et collègue dans la CNRSE (Commission nationale sur la réforme du système éducatif) sur quelques aspects de son argumentation, il reste qu’il a mis trop de temps à sortir des «tranchées et des arcanes de l’institution ministérielle», à poser et ouvrir le débat, comme il le fait, enfin et si bien dans El Watan. «Le respect est un tribut que nous ne pouvons refuser au mérite» (E. Kant).
D’emblée, nous dirons que le discours développé dans ce dossier, sur les questions conceptuelles (approche par les compétences) est uniquement d’apparence moderniste, usant de manière erronée de notions relevant essentiellement de la pédagogie, la didactique et la linguistique pour soutenir un discours de type idéologique contre une entrée pédagogique dans les programmes.En fait, ce discours tente de donner un soubassement un tant soit peu rationnel à un projet de catharsis social pour expliquer et justifier les mouvements de protestation des élèves de terminale et par là, l’échec de la réforme.
L’art est de trouver le bouc émissaire : une approche pédagogique, et des instances : la Commission nationale des programmes, dont je fais partie et dont les propos ici ne l’engagent nullement.
L’action des lycéens est légitime et pose un problème de lisibilité de la politique de l’évaluation pédagogique à dominante certificative du MEN (BEM et bac). La tutelle continue à travailler avec des paradigmes anciens et obsolètes : prééminence de l’activité de contrôle («ataba : seuil») au détriment de la fonction de régulation sous toutes ses
formes : non-régulation des apprentissages, non-régulation des enseignements, non-régulation de l’organisation… Un état peu reluisant des structures et du fonctionnement du système éducatif, qui rend visible la peine des acteurs, à tous les niveaux, à gérer chaque fois l’urgence, carrément les conflits, et à accentuer, par là, la saturation des uns et l’usure des autres, au détriment d’une dynamique collective portée par une «pensée» et une «pratique» jetant les premières bases d’un redéploiement qualificatif vers cette société de l’intelligence et de la re/production des élites.
MEN : une confusion conceptuelle
Les questions posées par les élèves et leurs parents sont en rapport aussi bien avec la nature de l’option méthodologique organisatrice du dispositif pédagogique, «officiellement» en application dans le système éducatif, que de son application réelle, auxquelles il faudrait ajouter toutes les restructurations liées à la réforme de l’école, non encore entamées (décentralisation, autonomie, évaluation, obligation de résultats, comparaison internationale, observatoire, conseil national, etc.).
D’abord, une confusion lourde de conséquences, car fondamentalement conceptuelle, généralisée dans tous les discours enregistrées sur l’éducation en Algérie (ministère, parents, enseignants, élèves, journalistes) étant à la base de tous les dérèglements dans toutes les pratiques pédagogiques dans notre pays : la confusion entre «programmes» et «manuels». Trois conséquences de natures différentes peuvent être listées : au niveau didactique et pédagogique, ce sont les manuels qui se substituent aux programmes, au niveau légal : les programmes ont perdu leur caractère officiel réglementaire au profit des manuels, qui, eux, sont des documents agréés, leurs conceptions relèvent de deux instances à la composante et au fonctionnement totalement différents, au niveau fonctionnel : une approche éclatée de la refonte pédagogique mettant à nu une absence de coordination intra sectorielle : CNP, départements ministériels (formation, évaluation…), inspections générales, etc. ; au niveau institutionnel et communicationnel : l’absence d’un discours sur la réforme de l’école.
Les acteurs expriment de manière explicite une expérience et formulent, à qui veut bien les comprendre, un besoin : les programmes scolaires et non l’approche par les compétences (APC), tels que compris par le MEN. Les deux domaines ne recouvrent pas la même réalité… A un tel niveau de responsabilité, ce sont des raccourcis qui rendent compte de la légèreté dans le traitement de concepts opératoires cognitifs des élèves. Ce glissement n’est pas fortuit : il rend compte de la nature et du type de confrontation entre deux courants d’idées dans le secteur du MEN, courants ayant trait aux fondements conceptuels généraux dans l’élaboration des programmes et de la refonte pédagogique.
Le MEN : deux courants d’idées
Deux directions d’analyse semblent se dégager de la conception de la refonte des programmes en Algérie : celle portée par la Commission nationale des programmes (CNP), chargée de mettre en œuvre un des chantiers de la réforme du système éducatif dans le prolongement de la CNRSE («la refonte pédagogique») et celles des «administrateurs de la tutelle». La CNP est formée de personnalités désignées, dans sa majorité, de personnes indépendantes et es-qualités (universitaires, chercheurs, inspecteurs généraux, anciens cadres du MEN et directeurs centraux). Placée sous la tutelle du ministre, ladite commission est chargée de superviser la conception et la validation des programmes qu’elle propose au ministre pour décision. Sous sa direction, il y a les GSD (Groupe spécialisé de discipline). La conception des manuels, quant à elle, relève de l’INRE et de l’ONPS.
Le MEN : trois postures pédagogiques
Pour saisir les pratiques pédagogiques dominantes et mises en œuvre par les acteurs du secteur de l’éducation nationale (y compris le privé), il faut rendre visible trois postures :
1- une attitude traditionaliste, dispensant un enseignement de type encyclopédiste, basée essentiellement sur la mémorisation-restitution des connaissances. Reconnaissons que c’est une opération cognitive où les étudiants et les élèves algériens, de manière générale, malheureusement, excellent. Dans l’ensemble, c’est une attitude attentiste, sans perspectives, reproduisant le mode ambiant qui a généré la crise algérienne, celui de l’échec. Généralisé à l’ensemble du système éducatif, ce mode d’intervention pédagogique, caractéristique de la méthode traditionnelle, s’accommode très bien du maintien de l’ordre établi, aux dépens de la pensée rationnelle. Sa caractéristique : le repli identitaire.
2- La deuxième attitude, que nous qualifierions d’instrumentaliste, est une tendance qui veut se recycler sans se former ; une de ses dérives les plus dangereuses, dans un contexte d’éducation et de formation, est de reproduire les représentations et conduites anciennes sous un nouvel habillage terminologique (y compris l’approche par les compétences), sous opérer les ruptures qui sous-tendent les nouvelles postures. Les démarches, dont ils sont évidemment convaincus, relèvent de la «révélation», voire du «prophétique». Faut-il le reconnaître, qu’on n’est pas loin lorsqu’on n’arrive pas à analyser, l’exercice n’est pas certes facile, les tendances positives et négatives qui forment, de manière systémique, les contours d’ensemble du dispositif pédagogique, avec toutes les implications qu’on peut pré-supposer. Dès lors, des stratégies défensives se sont mises en place par un repli excessif vers les spécialisations de tout un chacun, au détriment de la formation globale.
D’un côté, des certitudes strictement disciplinaires, ancrées dans une approche fondée sur uniquement les «connaissances» et leur enseignement (raisonnement tenu par M. Bourouina), de l’autre, des besoins réels des apprenants ; au centre, un écart qui ne cesse de grandir. Sa caractéristique : le repli disciplinaire.
3- La troisième attitude est un comportement empirique, tâtonnant mais qui a l’avantage d’être prospectif. C’est une attitude qui reste à construire, qui postule, même si elle est consciente qu’elle n’a pas encore les moyens, qu’il n’y a pas de place à l’improvisation quand il s’agit de la formation.
Cependant, elle a une conviction : ce sont les fonctions traditionnelles de l’école : fonction critique, rigueur éthique et scientifique, conduite prospective, capacités d’analyse, déstructuration /restructuration des modèles explicatifs, anticipation, problématique… Le cadre théorique qui sied le mieux à cette démarche est l’approche par les compétences (approche et non méthode, encore une autre confusion!). Elle a l’avantage de poser et penser l’école comme une totalité en termes de savoir, donc des connaissances, mais aussi des savoir-faire à dominante cognitive et socio-constructiviste (savoir problématiser, déduire, induire, synthétiser, extrapoler, généraliser, imaginer …), ainsi que des «savoir-être et savoir-devenir» : «qui suis-je ?» en tant qu’aboutissant et produit d’un long processus historique de mise en contenu (attitudes et comportements), dans la pluralité des parcours identitaires de ce pays.
Il reste, cependant, qu’elle use, en Algérie comme dans tous les pays du monde (et ils sont nombreux, même dans les pays développés !), de concepts acquis de manière disparate dans des ensembles conceptuels rigoureux, pour la simple raison que la pédagogie n’est pas une théorie, mais se situe à l’intersection de plusieurs disciplines. Sa réussite dépend de deux facteurs sûrs, déterminants : la formation et l’évaluation. Sa caractéristique en Algérie : elle n’a pas atteint le point de non-retour.
Et… le reste
Cette dernière attitude incite les acteurs de l’acte pédagogique à poser des questions avant d’inventer les réponses, telles que : est-ce que la réforme est un jeu d’écriture entre les nouveaux et les anciens programmes d’études ? Comment assurer le dépassement qualitatif des questionnements sur une ensemble de rapports : le rapport à l’histoire et non seulement au passé et à la mémoire, au savoir et non seulement à la science, au territoire et non seulement à l’espace, au politique et non seulement au pouvoir, aux langues et non seulement à l’arabe, à la spiritualité et non seulement à la religion, à l’«algérianité» (loi d’orientation sur l’éducation 8 janvier 2008) et non seulement à l’emblème national… Autant de sujets de discussions que de réactualisations des tranches d’un passé refoulé, lointain et immédiat.
Il s’agissait, pour la CNRSE et la CNP, à la sortie de la crise sanglante, de trouver, penser et poser une entité nationale, scientifique et culturelle, sortant des frustrations historiques, des culpabilisations idéologiques, des stigmatisations linguistiques, des stratégies régionalistes, des incantations prophétiques et des rhétoriques romantiques… à l’effet de trouver le cadre conceptuel, voire systémique, le plus général possible, unitaire et non uniforme en mesure de prendre en charge le comportement d’une entité complexe et son évolution, mais une évolution-intégration sans fracture, sans violence, ni schisme, prenant une configuration d’ensemble plus grande, mettant à profit la capitalisation historique de quatre décennies, à expérience et dominante monolithique et intégriste.
Une entreprise difficile dans une institution et un ministère, pour reprendre les propos de feu Tahar Kaci, où «toute l’organisation scolaire repose sur le principe de la hiérarchie des niveaux et des fonctions reproduisant ainsi la logique administrative qui prévaut dans sa gestion».
Ainsi, parler de formation dans l’absolu, sans l’adosser à des options stratégiques intimement liées à un projet de société, (comme c’est le cas du très contesté «Statut particulier» de l’éducation), relève de l’ignorance et ne peut s’expliquer, à l’évidence, dans notre contexte que par l’existence d’une tutelle dont ni la composante ni l’organisation n’est en mesure de saisir les articulations intellectuelles, scientifiques d’une réforme dans ses déclinaisons axiologiques, épistémologiques et méthodologiques les plus fécondes. En toute objectivité, actuellement, les programmes en Algérie, contrairement à nos deux voisins, basculent, tanguent entre ces trois attitudes.
Nous voyons bien qu’il ne s’agit pas de calquer mécaniquement des modèles qui ont fait leurs preuves dans d’autres pays, mais d’insister sur les ancrages de type sociétal, des pesanteurs réelles, administratives et pédagogiques, de l’environnement institutionnel, mais de mettre en rapport un système d’objectifs avec les moyens qui permettent de le réaliser. Quant à l’encadré sur le professeur Xavier Roegeers, nous répondrons qu’il n’est pas dans les mœurs universitaires et l’éthique académique d’insulter l’intelligence humaine.

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Natif de Sougueur ex Trézel ,du département de Tiaret Algérie Il a suivi ses études dans la même ville et devint instit par contrainte .C’est en voyant des candides dans des classes trop exiguës que sa vocation est née en se vouant pleinement à cette noble fonction corps et âme . Très reconnaissant à ceux qui ont contribué à son épanouissement et qui ne cessera jamais de remémorer :ses parents ,Chikhaoui Fatima Zohra Belasgaa Lakhdar,Benmokhtar Aomar ,Ait Said Yahia ,Ait Mouloud Mouloud ,Ait Rached Larbi ,Mokhtari Aoued Bouasba Djilali … Créa blog sur blog afin de s’échapper à un monde qui désormais ne lui appartient pas où il ne se retrouve guère . Il retrouva vite sa passion dans son monde en miniature apportant tout son savoir pour en faire profiter ses prochains. Tenace ,il continuera à honorer ses amis ,sa ville et toutes les personnes qui ont agi positivement sur lui

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